Responses to “Jai Prithivinarayan Shah, Jai Gorkha, Jai Gorkhaland!”
Uttarbanga Jana Jagaran Manch Says:
July 19, 2008 at 12:50 pmWe are opposing Gorkhaland or any partition and disintegration of West Bengal. India Government and West Bengal Government must consider the following demands in the interest of SECURITY QUESTION OF INDIA. Nepali infiltration must be stopped and they should be treated as per Bangladeshi migrants. Government must handled the all issues in strong hand.
DEMANDS OF UTTARBANGA JANA JAGARAN MANCH
1. Both the demands of Sixth Schedule and separate State of Gorkhaland would mean ultimate partition and disintegration of West Bengal. Both the demands should be rejected.
2. Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council may be abolished and the Darjeeling District put directly under state administration, with Army protection.
3. Clause-VII Indo-Nepal Treaty of 1950 may be repealed to prevent foreign Nepali infiltration.
4. All foreign Nepalese should be identified and pushed back to Nepal, as per the Foreigners Act, 864 as is being done in the case of illegal Bangladeshi migrants.
5. Border outposts be set up with barbed-wire fencing. Visa be introduced in the Indo-Nepal border as is the case with Bangladesh
Apropos the demands and questions put forward by Uttarbanga Jana Jagaran Mancha (UJJM), Siliguri.
A. If Prof Haren Ghosh is genuinely a Bengali refugee from across the borders, he deserves much personal credit for his humble loyalty to Bengal for giving him food and shelter. He is now only returning the dues favoured in return compliment, in playing the second fiddle in protecting many like him, refugees and immigrants migrating illegally. Over a period of time with the nonchalant attitude of pan-Bengali, not only Siliguri (a subdivision of hill district of Darjeeling) but entire West Bengal has metamorphosed to Amar Sonar Bangladesh (sic.not India’s Bengal). It is therefore ambiguous, rather superfluous, for Uttarbanga Jana Jagaran Mancha (Prof. Ghosh) to even consider uttering the security question of India, when refugees and the East Bengali migrants have turned comrades in arms to create the CPM(M) bastion in Indian Bengal. Why name poor Prof Ghosh who is acting in proving to his boss and mentor the likes of Ashok Bhattacharya, Subhash Chakroborty and almost all ministers of West Bengal, all on enquiry are alleged to have an East Bengali refugee background. It is assumed Buddhadeb Bhattacharya, the CM, is said to be the only exception to the rule, which is why, despite his red shirt, his economic policies show his true attendant to the state. He is possibly the last of the Mohicans.
B. In reply to the UJJM claim to Nepali infiltration, is an expression of the body’s parochial predetermined mindset, lack of historical contents and blurred vision, proverbially pointing the guilty man’s finger at those innocent, to hide the exposition of the guilty. The flow of citizens across the Nepal- India border is free for either national under the 1950 Treaty of Friendship, whereas, this same mutual equal opportunity status is totally absent in regard to erstwhile East Pakistan (present Bangladesh). In fact, the latter’s borders are completely sealed for all practical purposes in contrast to the free flow of respective populations from either side of Nepal and India. In contrast, the extensive Bangladeshi borders and exit points are barbed wire fenced and the exits strictly policed, despite which the porous borders remain conduits for regular inflow of illegal immigrants constantly increasing. The situation is so serious, the illegal Bangladeshi problem has become a-fait-accompli and reached an irreversible point. These are the hard facts which are pushing the plains hill peoples to trace back their track to the hills again.
C. The migration of Nepalese to India and the reverse situation is protected by mutual agreements as per the Indo-Nepal Treaty 1950. So at no point of time, can anybody point a finger at the migrants between India and Nepal. This seemingly peaceful co-existence is to the advantage of India than Nepal and who is not in a position to reverse the disadvantages situation by its geopolitical landlocked location being its dent of fate. Nepal’s very economic survival and sustainable development depends upon the free exit to the plains of India (via its long borders with the country) and to the sea via Bangladesh. This is one of the factorial importances of Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling district being the transit route in India joining Nepal to the seaports in Bangladesh.
D. UJJM must be reminded, the Bangladeshi immigrants to India via the various borders joining the Indian border states is seen as a compelling natural expanding point of Bangladeshi over population migrating directionally outwards, initially to the bordering Indian states and to the various districts and metropolis mainly North India as well as other states. This overflow contains the seeds of many national security elements externally as well as suspected terrorists related activities, as experienced in the various multiple bomb blasts occurring in many cities of India recently. The nexus of these serial blasts is apprehended as the ISI engineered counter destabalising activities linking the operations from the porous border conduits of the adjoining countries Nepal and Bangladesh.
E. The Nepali hill peoples, on the contrary, are being slowly driven out of their own country by North Indian immigration, moving up from the plains along the 450 miles of common borders up to the hilly terrains of Nepal. The gradual advent of ethnic Indian immigrants’ slow domination of the Nepalese population was conspicuous recently, (i) by an ethnic Indian Madhesey being elected as the President of the New Republic of Nepal and (ii) followed by another ethnic Indian Madhesey elected as the Vice President who advertently or inadvertently took the oath of office in Hindi and not in the national language Nepali upsetting the traditional balance between the two ethnic communities, becoming a contentious issue for the ethnic Nepali public. It is highly suspect that the Govt. of India was not aware of the situation in advance, rather the Maoists, who are the single largest elected political party unable to elect their party candidates to the two important executive posts, will suspect an Indian hand in the language issue as well as the executive elections. The language of oath issue is purportly to have been done intentionally to browbeat the Maoist and ethnic Nepalese sentiments all of whom have vehemently opposed to the 1950 Indo-Nepal Friendship Treaty. This Treaty is seen as the Indian Trojan horse by the Nepalese in the process of Sikkimisation of Nepal, a suspicion which is in the mind of all Nepali rulers, politicians as well as the lay public.
1. UJJM is asked why either the Sixth Schedule or separate state of Gorkhaland demand needs to be rejected just because they say so. This is a parochial thinking and no person considered assumed educated and able to translate the meaning of democracy, pose as a hurdle to deprive ethnic communities and groups, within the setup of a democratic sovereign republic. The strength as well as the weakness of India is its diversity of racial, ethnic and cultural composition, bonded by the trail and trepidations of the Indian civilization (sic Indus Valley & Harappa period 2000-5000BC) being contemporary only to the great Egyptians, Mesopotamians and Babylonians, maybe, considered even more advanced to the latter in terms of its social structure considered democratic predominantly as a political structure. Whereas, all the latter civilizations referred religiously were monotheistic nations in contrast to Indus Valley civilizations affording to claim predominantly as popular democratic city states, comparable to later Greco-Athenian city states evolved only after two-three thousand years, and later to influence the socio-political history in order to stamp the footprint of the political philosophy of Europe and the rest of the world presently.
If respectable Prof Ghosh and the organisation he heads portend to don the intellectual mask, he should discard the illusions of Bengali up-manship culture and advise change to become the true Bengali Bhadraloke, which species is presently extinct in Bengal. This will bring him in order to endeavour rapport in understanding the democratic aspirations of the hill peoples. Thereby, instead of opposing, supporting the formers demand for a state for the Darjeeling hill peoples would be otherwise justifiable, than towing the diktat of the CPM rulers who has destroyed the historical and cultural ethos, that was Bengal. No doubt, this is a Herculean challenge for him made more difficult to conserve his East Bengal background. However, if he is able to shed his intellectual hooded cloak, replace and don one of true democracy, camaraderie, mutual friendship and peaceful co-existence, which higher values will raise his stature to claim one amongst Indians and not just Bengali, whether East or West.
The 6th Schedule presently lying on the table of Parliament has been rejected by the Darjeeling hill people without anyone having said so. This 6th Schedule was a repainted version of the existing Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council (DGHC) to look like a new model Gorkha Hill Council Darjeeling (GHCD), and certainly does not fit the Darjeeling body. The original 6th Schedule has reference to the Northeast regions, particularly Assam, out of which areas four new northeast states were created. Incidentally, Arunachal Pradesh too was created by the 6th Schedule process followed by Union Territory and eventually a state. It is understood Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh (reintroduction) as well as Manipur have appealed for introduction of the 6th Schedule in their states.
Darjeeling Dist for your information, in deciphering its historical existence as a region is truly a 6th Schedule designated area describing its distinctiveness since the incorporation of the district under various Govt. of India legislations since British rule. Briefly explained, this goes back to the time of the imposition of the Govt. of India, Regulating Act 1773, which when applied to Darjeeling District is read as a ‘Non-Regulation District’. The same was applied to erstwhile Assam. Later on with the gradual change in govt. administrative setup vis a vis the East India Company and East India Govt., the definition of the alluded district areas underwent periodical and referential changes as Backward Tract Govt. of India Act 1870). In Assam again in 1874 the “Backward Tracts’ was converted to Scheduled Districts under the Scheduled District Act of 1874. (Whether this applied to Darjeeling District is to be verified in Govt. documents). Later on, under the Govt. of India Act 1919 under Section 52(A), the Governor General was empowered to declare any territory a Backward Tract, and to direct that any act of the Indian Legislation shall not apply, or apply subject to such modification as the Governor General in Council thinks fit.
The various Govt. of India Acts state has clearly presented Darjeeling District as a distinct (outside the purview of West Bengal administration) area and as an extension of the Northeast regions. In the wildest imagination Darjeeling district has no commonality with Bengal, in fact to the rest of India, but more identifiable with the hill states of the Himalayas from Ladakh in the west running along the hills of the Himalayas to the ends of Arunachal Pradesh in the east including the Northeastern states. In fact it was the selfish interested Bengali mentality and politician’s who deprived the Darjeeling hills from joining with Assam and the rest of the Northeast which should have been the justifiable approach. After the departure of the British from India and who were the pioneers for creating Darjeeling for whatever its worth, the rule was transferred to Bengalis the new masters of the hill people and who connived to occupy Darjeeling as a personal fiefdom, describing it as the Crown of Bengal crafted for the size of the Bengali head. The consideration, development and welfare of the backward people were least in the mind of the new rulers. Had Darjeeling been transferred to Assam at the proper time, during the process of constitutional reforms under the Act of 1919 it is more than probable the district could have attired statehood by now following the steps taken by the backward tracts (presently to mean the various tribal communities).
Not looking into the distinct features of the Darjeeling people and considering it separate from the Northeast region, is conspicuous in the statement of Mrs. Sushma Swaraj MP and Mr. S.S Ahluwalia MP, having stated the misconception, during the Parliamentary Standing Committee hearing on the 6th Schedule Amendment Bill 2007 and the Constitution 107 Amendment Bill 2007, that the Bill is extending Northeast regions to the plains of India and that it would open a Pandora’s box of claimence for the same recognition in the rest of India. The two eminent BJP MP’s is advised to refer to the above context of Govt. of India Acts to clear their mis-views and statement, whereas, Darjeeling is constitutionally recognized as a part of the northeast and not an appendage or an extension, which was duly referred In fact to carry the story further it was a part of the erstwhile country of Sikkim (which now happens to be the 29th state of India as well as included in the Northeast Council of states). It is a tragedy of the Darjeeling hill peoples fate that the District is neither with its parent state, Sikkim nor with a commonality state Assam, but joined with Bengal with no historical common bond, but in fact poles apart in the matter.
If at all the UJJM would like to shed their unqualified intellectual mask and pretence of Indianess, and the original values of democracy preserved by the Bengali minds of yore they should refer the matter to Sikkim in reference to the Darjeeling hills, and the Assam Duars to the neighbouring country of Bhutan to say their piece which has been silently eschewed since the Treaty of Segowlee 1815-1816, Treaty of Titalia 1817, Deed of Darjeeling Grant 1835 applied to loss of Sikkim territories to British India, and the Proclamation regarding the annexation of the Bengal Duars 1864, Treaty of Sinchula 1865 and the Proclamation regarding annexation of the Duars 1866 in respect to loss of Bhutanese territory to British India. Now that India is a democratic Sovereign Republic the matter needs a fresh re-look guided by the Constitution of India to reverse the process of British imperialistic hegemonistic design surfeited by the ethnic people of the region whose posterity is still bonded in chain under the dominant exploited rule of Bengal carrying on the British predecessor’s trend, avowing not to allow the ethnic hill people to scout their own future. This is the new trend of Bengali parochism which has originated not from the cultural history of Bengal but showing the hydra like tentacles of erstwhile East Bengali or if you will, cultivation of immigrant Bangladeshi (mostly illegal immigrants) culture being imposed in West Bengal and adjoining states of India bordering Bangladesh.
It follows from the above premises and conditions Gorkhaland is a justifiable demand for the Darjeeling hill peoples, just as diverse as India, but which people are bonded together by a common lingua franca Nepali language, and which is recognized as one of the Indian languages in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution. This is another justifiable factor for the Darjeeling hill peoples demand for a separate state for Nepali speaking ethnic communities under Constitutional provisions wherein, many states were formed based on the commonality of different communities speaking a common language in order to form Union states. This is an added factor besides the above stated underlying distinct features of the Darjeeling hill peoples common to the Northeast regions as discussed earlier.
UJJM should solicit for demanding the scraping of DGHC introduced by the Govt. of West Bengal provided by the West Bengal Legislature basically for the remote control rule of Darjeeling District by proxy, creating puppets like GNLF Supremo (in the past tense) Subhash Ghissing. By this political manoeuver Bengal over a period of time crippled Ghissing intentionally, administrative and financially to the point of a lame duck pretending superfluous leadership while turned into a weakling to be rejected by his own people. The story of Ghissing’s dislodgment from power is the replica of historical incidences of malignant despotic rule brought to an end. Just as Julius Caesar was maligned by Et tu Brute, so was Ghissing brought down by his protégé Bimal Gurung the youthful leader of GJMM, who promises to deliver Gorkhaland by 2010 as per his zodiac configurations.
The GJMM has de facto scrapped the DGHC in the mindset and which administration has practically been bought to a halt by the Gorkhaland statehood demand agitation. Must UJJM be reminded, incase Prof Ghosh is out of touch with current news, GJMM and the Darjeeling hill peoples have already rejected the amended version of the 6th Schedule, introduced in Parliament, placed with the Parliamentary Standing Committee for scrutiny and now left in the cold deep fridge. Prof. Ghosh needs to read his script before professing his lectureship. It seems as though he is simply reading out the draft prepared by his CPM cadre associates, doctored for the CPM mouthpiece and for his personal gratification to don the mantle of intellectualism. When the whole of Bengal is rotting under the four decade old misrule of CPM Govt. with intellectual species like Prof. Ghosh representing the civil society, only the fall of the CPM misrule will provide a distinguishable future for West Bengal. Surely the coming elections will decide the fate of West Bengal as well as the Darjeeling hill peoples to create their dream world into a reality in achieving a statehood.
2. It is a quixotic and superfluous of UJJM demanding that Darjeeling District be put under state administration. Darjeeling District is under the state administration, only that the administrators are not able to perform the diktats of their political masters in Writers Building or the ground based cadre leaders. Maybe the list of questions the learned Prof has asked seems to be entangling his mind and therefore escaping his mental capitulation and blurring his perceptions. Despite the district being under the state administration, many incidental law and order problems have occurred but overall there is total order in the hills for the common person, except those directly opposing the statehood demand who may have faced some dire consequences? In fact violence is created as a countermeasure by the state political leaders deriving mileage politicizing the administration machinery, orchestrated by utterances of CPM leaders exciting violent reaction in some forms. In Siliguri and the Duars where the CPM holds political influence, rampant public violence was thrust upon GJMM procession activists, disallowing them from democratic right to freedom of speech and assembly. It is known to all that this violent oppressive activism performed by CPM cadres and associated civil societies is considered to be premeditative and pre-emptying opposition activism. Despite such countermeasures, the GJMM activists have not reacted violently as otherwise anticipated but taken the violent and oppressive measures imposed on them maturely, under inspiration from Gandhian passivism following the footsteps of the great soul, the father of Indian independence. The recent incident of the mowing down of GJMM activist Pramila Sharma of Darjeeling by incidental bullets alleged to have been fired from the residence of Deepak Gurung, GNLF leader, may have reacted in the form of the attacks let loose on the residences of GNLF leaders in various parts of the districts and hounding them out from inhabiting then hill regions, is, but the exposition of suppressed and pent up feelings existing, the adamancy of the respective leaders in cow-towing the GJMM leadership at various levels. The adamancy of the GNLF leaders in opposing the new brand of leadership was taken as a threat and opposition to the present political agitation considered freeing the Darjeeling hill people from Bengal’s bondage. This ideal has traumatized all thought process in order to direct all available inputs directed to achieve statehood which is seen to have eluded the hill people past one century. Considering the time span and the living space denied the proverbial one track mind of the simple hill people is now in an irreversible mode. The dream is seen so close to become a reality yet so far to disbelieve. This state of mind is unapproachable and closed to all rational approaches no matter the efficacy.
The remaining GNLF leaders including Subhash Ghissing and his close adherents, in the minds of the hill people are considered as quislings and traitors betraying the political agitation and accordingly considered dangerous for the common cause, or in another sense also feared less they raise their heads again in vengeful vendetta later. Whatever the reason, the mowing down of Pramila Sharma by gunshot did not result in anticipation public reaction which could have let loose violent trends throughout the district, but instead it was localized to offset the remaining GNLF leaders, considering their dissemination as perceived gain for the statehood cause. The common people knowing the operative skill of CPM well suspect every CPM and GNLF associates not as political opposition but opposition to destabilise the hill peoples cause, to fulfill the formers selfish and narrow intention in order to tie a noose around the hill people neck and have the prerogative of ruling the Darjeeling hills endlessly. Even Indian tourists visiting the Darjeeling hills enquire with the locals as to the reason of Darjeeling hills being a part of West Bengal. This is the general thinking of Indians happening to visit these areas. Surely the rulers of India that be in Delhi and elsewhere understands the true nature of the problem, when they whisper their lips are sealed under political compulsions specially with the CPM political hold in the Parliament and the Centre. However, after the vote of trust demanded by the CPM has been defeated the Congress and the new UPA Govt. might be favorable in listening to the bleating of the hill people’s demand for statehood. With that in mind, maybe Bimal Gurung’s prediction of achieving statehood in 2010 will be a nice thought to lull the hill people to a peaceful slumber. After all, the zodiac for the CPM does not augur well after the loss of face in the parliamentary trust motion. There is a market downward slump which is related to presumption in a change of govt. in West Bengal in the forthcoming elections. This maybe interpreted as good for West Bengal as well. This was long time in coming. It is more than probable that just as Bimal Gurung opened the blocked vocal chord of the Darjeeling hill people more than twenty one years, Ms. Mamta Banerjee with indirect support from the UPA combination of political parties’ will succeed in allowing the people of West Bengal to open their vocal chords.
Is the Govt. of West Bengal despite politicizing the administration and over lording it to fulfill their agenda, find now so weak to ask for army protection? Is it not strange, that it was the CPM who came to power applying all tactics under the roof whether threats, muscles, murder, et al, to grab power and are themselves now demanding army protection to rule the mess they have created. After all the administration was made non functionable totally by the CPM rulers. If ever the army is used, it should be to control the CPM politicians and cadre rule in Bengal, which has resulted in the introduction of a new culture vogue in West Bengal. Where have the classical Bhadraloke disappeared? The Bengalis who fought for independence like Subhas Chandra Bose and many like him are eluded presently in reference only in respective public fora. Where are the names of the eminent Bengalis who contributed in making Calcutta the cultural centre of India? They too seemed to have vanished post departure of their British masters. After all was it not George Charnock and the British who turned a small fishing village along the bank of the Hoogly in Calcutta to make the namesake place not only the capital of India, but, the capital of Asia. Then comes the patriotic Bengali communist proletariats with imprints from Russia and Marxism to over print it in the culture of Bengal and release it from its zenith to contain the debris and relics of present day Bengal. It is only Mr.Buddhadeb Bhattacharya, CM is patriotic enough weighing his own liability in proceeding to salvage Bengal from the forty year old misrule and mismanagement of the state. It is thanks to Mr. Jyoti Basu, the chief patriarch of CPM in Bengal, nay in India, who is to be held responsible for changing the destination of Bengal from the cultural and industrial state of India to its present pitfall. Should we not emulate the trodden track of reforms and development process ventured by the greatest communist countries in the world Russia and China and all the former eastern European nations, with the exception of Fidel Castro’s Cuba and our own state Kerala. The whole world is gearing up with reforms to partake its share in global economics. Considering this scenario Jyoti Babu should come out, even at this age and accept his mistake for creating the blunder in Bengal. Otherwise it will not be long before history will interpret him in his true light. The countdown has begun, he still has time before settling him down in history books. The great communist leaders of yore were never spared their wrongs including Joseph Stalin, Mao Tse Tung and others. Even space for Fidel Castro of Cuba is already reserved in the history of Cuba, which predictably will be joined with the names of the former two. Jyoti Basu is advised well in advance.
3. UJJM wants Clause-VII the Indo Nepal Treaty 1950 repealed. Prof Ghosh will be thanked by Prachanda and the Maoists of Nepal in due time for requesting this favour. This is exactly what the Nepalese have been asking since long. In fact scrapping the entire Indo Nepal Treaty 1950 was one of the primary agendas of Prachanda’s Maoist movement besides removal of the theistic monarchy of the Shah Gorkha Kings which was successfully terminated. Clause VII is the controversial item which though sounding mutually acceptable is otherwise unacceptable to the Nepali people. The past and ancient history of Nepal, always speaks of Nepal under the suzerain of Indian kingdoms, although in effect Nepal has protected its independent isolation despite being hemmed in by two great neighbours in the north and south, which both were suspect at that point of time in history as of now also. But under the present situation with a large Indian migrant population in the Terai plains is a matter of great concern in respect of the future polity of the country. In fact even the ordinary Nepalese they suspect to the possibility of demographic ethnic Indianisation of Nepal, proceeding to the phrase commonly now referred as ‘Sikkimisation’ considered a real possibility. This has been recently established with the election of two heads of the country from the ethnic Indian Madhesay community.
Already stated earlier the oath taking ceremony of the Vice President has further raised the level of suspicion in the already affected Nepalese mind.
4. UJJM and its leadership should be legally prosecuted for instigating deportation of all foreign Nepalese nationals, to be identified and pushed back to Nepal. One might ask Prof. Ghosh under what charges of cetaceous crime whether any committed or not should the Nepalese be recharged. The Govt. of Nepal must immediately take up the matter with their Indian counterparts, asking for the legality and apology from the Indian govt. for touching the emotional sentiments of the Nepalese citizens residing in India as well as in Nepal. The Siliguri based body UJJM should be required to make a public statement to the contention and validity of their expression in demanding the expulsion of all foreign Nepalese ‘should be identified and pushed back to Nepal as per the Foreigners Act 1864’ (as being done in the case of illegal Bangladeshi migrants).
As per the 1950 Indo Nepal Treaty, the status of both Indians and Nepalese are clearly defined, whereas citizens of either country are to be treated equally with freedom to reside in India, work, establish business, acquire property, etc as nationals of either country. Under the Indian Citizenship Act 1950, all Nepali immigrants is allowed Indian citizenship if they so desire after discarding the Nepali citizenship. It was further amended Nepalese citizens residing in India after 1945 till the Promulgation of the Indian Citizenship Act 1950 are also allowed access to acquire Indian Citizenship accordingly.
It is the East Bengalis now Bangladeshis who are staying under Indian territory illegally, alleged to using govt. machinery process and using political shelter which needs to be addressed and acted upon. This is a burning issue which is known to the people of Bengal, Govt. of West Bengal and the Centre, who are all aware of the magnitude of the problem but with no political will to take a stand for reasons known to all. It is high time now; this perennial problem is addressed legally, politically and internationally, once and for all.
Prof Ghosh’s reference to the Foreigners Act 1864 which is referred to, Nepali’s are to be pushed back to Nepal is invalid, illegal and contradictory to Articles of the Indo-Nepal Treaty of 1950.By quoting this Act without understanding its implications in terms of India’s diplomatic relations with Nepal, Prof. Ghosh is only exposing the defense of illegal immigrants from Bangladesh which it is assuaged is covered by the mentioned Foreigners Act 1864. The provision for illegal immigrants is a criminal offence and require to be treated as such under any court of law, obtaining voting right only to prove citizenship by producing ration cards as well as false birth certificates etc is surely not provided under the Indian Citizenship Act of 1950, and that the validity of all signed certificates must be scrutinized, verified and processed by the designated authority under the Indian Citizenship Act 1950. Foreigners if found illegally entering or residing in the country must be boarded on the first available flight back to their country of origin as is the practice and accepted norm internationally.
5. UJMM’s fifth and the last demand to set up barb fencing along the border post is a ludicrous and a lunatic demand when the Indo Nepal Treaty 1950, repeat Art VII clearly defines the status of either countries citizens role clearly without any let or hindrance mutually. Legally, the citizen of either country can literally walk in or walk out of each others country at any time with neither the use of a passport nor even a slip of paper. For all practical purposes, those two neighbours are sovereign states as far as mutuality of citizens are concerned, the two countries behave as one. Unlike the Indian border with Bangladesh which are intentionally barbed fenced, policed and administered for specific reasons concerning not only cross border illegal immigration, mostly from Bangladesh into India, but otherwise for different reasons of internal security perceptions, diplomatic and international relations. The Indian relationship with Nepal cannot be compared with the same eyes on Bangladesh. India’s relations with erstwhile East Pakistan was one of foreign relations, strategic and geopolitical standing. However, after the liberation of Bangladesh the threat equation has changed to perception of internal security with the increase in illegal Bangladeshi immigrants turning into Indian citizens unconstitutionally thereby opening up a floodgate of further illegal immigrants, which has completely changed the demography of West Bengal, Assam, Tripura, Mizoram affecting these states adversely in more than one way, thereby becoming a nuisance and a perennial problem of ethnic disputes.
Hillman- The Analyst